Hue – Imperial city with canned cultural calues
In 1993, the architectural monuments of Hue recognized by UNESCO as World Cultural and November 2003 to May, Nha nhac Hue imperial palace was also recognized as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity by UNESCO.
Hue was once the center of political and cultural state of feudal Vietnam in over 400 years. Therefore the king Quang Trung chosen as the capital of the Tay Son Dynasty (1788-1802), King Gia Long chosen as the capital of the Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1945).
Overall, the majority of home architecture offers North Shore is located in the Huong River. It is the citadel (the Citadel, the Imperial City, Forbidden City), in which hundreds of villas and palaces for the royal court and the work and accommodation.
In the southern hills of Perfume River 20.000ha wider for the construction of tombs, forums, temple , pagodas, including the four most famous village and its own character architecture of each king, its owner, majestic Gia Long Tomb ; en oai Minh Mang Tomb, poetic Tu Duc and Khai Dinh tomb magnificent tomb.
Most of the residence of the left, the government introduced the country as princes, guesthouses wear strands concentrate in certain neighborhoods and hamlets along the citadel as Kim Long, Vy Da, Gia Hoi An old ... Who are scattered across Kinh Hue has many architectural works have value. Defense of the sea and the South, the court was built in Thanh Hai Tran Gate Thuan (1813 Gia Long time), the Hai Van Pass Hai Van Quan (Minh Mang in 1826) ... that near the Citadel, a Temple of Literature, Vo Mieu, women, Tiger right, Elephant Power Re...
Almost all the cluster of buildings and architecture of each of the citadel graves, palaces temples, the villa garden, are xuyet by the natural landscape such as rivers or lakes artificial mountain ponds, trees, grass flowers. In general, the same type of architecture and hospitality in the capital Hue folk are planning, rate setting and transplanted into the appropriate coherent and harmonious natural environment in a systematic way, tight.
Hue is an important center of Buddhism. In Hue and its surrounding more than 1,000 large Buddhist temple, is the great art and architecture, including dozens of temples built 300 years ago and hundreds of temples were built early in the 20th century. Including the Thien Mu pagoda -Dieu De Pagoda Dam.
Characteristics of the culture in the province of Thua Thien -Hue is a combination of harmony between folklore and culture of the imperial palace. What they have, the tone at the time was to acquire and arranger for the king became lord ca closer to the high artistic value
Nguyen very impressed with the Chinese culture, did build a royal city that looks like two drops of water to the Imperial City of Beijing, but in the manner of Ming, they wanted to build tombs nearby. In this, they broke completely with later Le, whose mortal remains were buried in simple graves stone or masonry Lam Son (Thanh Hoa), the birthplace of the founder of the dynasty. Nguyen kings had built their lifetime their own graves which allowed them to monitor the work. They were inspired by an old popular belief, "the soul of the deceased continues to live in the afterlife, we must take care of her, give presents, to protect against evil spirits, we must therefore leave his body nearby and ensure the sustainability of his memory ... ".
Each Royal Tombs in Hue, Vietnam Royal tomb, there are four or five identical components. What is the difference between all these tombs is the arrangement and development of personality traits of the king.
The Court of Honor, sometimes called Court Hearings is generally a terrace rising in tiers (similar to that which preceded the throne room in the castle), and which were celebrated ritual ceremonies. It almost always statues of mandarins, soldiers, horses and elephants.
The first building is a monument or stele pavilion. It is dedicated to the memory of the late king, whose deeds (often greatly exaggerated) are engraved on a stone stele.
The second building is the temple of worship, it is dedicated to the soul, with an altar on which are arranged the funeral tablet and familiar objects.
The last major construction for the body remains, the tomb itself. In some cases, it is a symbolic tomb, the body being buried in another secret place, safe from vandals and rebels.
One or two speakers surround each of monuments, which surrounds the tomb is called Wall Precious and generally closed by a bronze door, intended for open once a year.
Finally, there are outbuildings, some raised to the memory of ancestors, others intended to house wives and concubines after death. These were supposed to burn incense every day in memory of the deceased.
The space devoted to the royal tombs Nguyen had no limits reminiscent real cemeteries. The largest of them, the Gia Long extended over no less than 2875 hectares and that of Tu Duc, yet one of the smaller of 225 hectares.
*/ THE TOMB OF MINH MANG
It is of great interest because it is closest sculptures Ming Beijing. It lies on the left bank of the Perfume River, at the confluence of two small tributaries of the river, a dozen kilometers from Hue.
Minh Mang tomb, royal tomb, HueMinh Mang (1820 - 1840), the second king of the dynasty and fourth son of Gia Long, is about the only ruler with his father, who has adopted a comprehensive plan, placing different buildings along the same axis of the tomb; ancillary buildings are located on the nearby hills, separated by two ponds dug by human hands ... Beautiful tree-lined fairways of all species provide welcome shade during the visit.
Unlike most other tombs, and although designed by the king himself, it was built between 1841 and 1843, just after the king's death, which occurred in 1840. Busy construction of several buildings in the citadel and to 142 children, he certainly overestimated the time he had left to live.
The cemetery is surrounded by a wall 2.80 m high and 1732 m long. The main monuments are oriented along an east-west axis. To get there, you have to cross a monumental gate located to the east.
We come first to the Stele Pavilion, fairly small. Here, the court aligned a series of characters and animals: Under a shrine covered in lead, two griffins are camped in gilded bronze. Then came the stone statues. Officers and soldiers of the Royal Guard, and finally two horses and two caparisoned elephants. This alignment forms the "Way of the Spirit."
Beyond the Gate of "Vertu Radiant" brings us to the temple of worship called "Pavilion Benefits revered". This wooden building supported by 64 columns, has a lot of charm with its rich sculptures.
Then we cross one of three parallel bridges built on Lake Pure Clarity, to arrive at the Palace of Light, a pavilion resting on two floors.
Just then, all the more harmonious: In front of the lake "Waxing Moon" are designed small gardens, connected to the sacred precincts by a stone bridge at each end of which stands a bronze portico recalling those of the Imperial Palace in Beijing. Each gantry consists of four bronze columns around which is wound a dragon. Between the columns are made of enameled copper panels illustrating the attributes of the four seasons. This is the bridge of the Intelligence which finally leads us to the Sacred Mound where the sovereign is based, and which is protected by the "Wall Precious". The monument is inaccessible to visitors.
* / THE TOMB OF TU DUC
Located 7 miles south of Hue, this is probably the most romantic and the most attractive. In fact, Khiem Long, his other name was more the feeling of visiting a house of pleasure a tomb. This is quite normal since built during the lifetime of the king who called his eternity, he served as his regular haunt for upcoming compose some poems which he was fond of, or simply fish. This park is home not only all the elements of a royal tomb that we have described above you, but all the buildings of a royal residence Palace residence of the king, palace women of the harem, reading pavilion, gazebo fishing and chess, and even a stage for theatrical performances of the Royal troupe only actresses. All consistent with a system where flower gardens growing rare and valuable species, lakes, ponds, islets with walkways and bridges, covered wooden roof, miniature mountains and pine -lined fairways ...
Tu Duc tom, royal tomb, HueTu Duke (1848 - 1883), grand- son of Minh Mang, was the fourth king of the Nguyen Dynasty. Although he killed his elder to the throne brother, he wanted a poet king (he would have composed poems in 1600 and also devoted himself to prose). Despite his 103 wives and concubines, he was frail and never had children, but he had adopted three of his nephews who he wanted to pass the throne when the time comes to retire Khiem Long but he died before.
The construction of this tomb (like other tombs) caused many deaths among the 3,000 workers who worked there between 1864 and 1867, but Tu Duc deigned to honor them in one of his poems:
"What sort of" Eternity Eternity is this?
Its walls bone soldiers are built
Ditches are filled with the blood of the people"
This did not prevent workers revolt in 1866, under the direction of scholars who created the "Cenacle lovers alcohol and poetry". The "revolt of the builders of burial" was harshly repressed. The rebels, convicted of high treason, were executed. To calm the people and encourage them to continue the construction, the king had to change the name "Residence of 10,000 years "by another name" Residence of Modesty "to clear the old name full of hatred, misfortunes against the people. By intelligence and imagination, it has transformed the mausoleum of a death in paradise flowers and trees, poetry and dreams. Almost 50 buildings mausoleum named "Modesty".
The path by which we enter the necropolis leads us first to the lake, which emerges a small island on which the king was amused to hunt. The lake, the king built in 1865, a charming house of rest, where he enjoyed writing his poems.
A monumental staircase then leads us to the temple of worship, but what is particularly remarkable in this set, the flag of the Stele, because the stele of Tu Duc does not weigh less than 20 tonnes.
It is said that the king's body is not in the tomb, but somewhere else on the highest terrace. Workers who dug his grave were executed for they can not reveal the exact location.
*/ THE TOMB OF GIA LONG
Gia Long, whose real name is Nguyen Anh, was the founder of the dynasty. Born in 1762, he reigned officially from 1802 to 1820 and made his tomb from 1814 to 1820.
It is 15 km from Hue, on the left bank of the Perfume River. The necropolis of Gia Long is the largest Hue (nearly 3,000 acres) and includes no less than 36 hills covered with pine forests. This framework remained in the wild is beautiful.
Inside the cemetery, the arrangement of buildings is not the same as royal tomb Tomb HueMinh Mang. Here, the Stele Pavilion and the temple of worship are not arranged on a longitudinal axis relative to the tomb, but on a transverse axis.
The first monument we encounter is the temple of worship, here called temple of "Glowing perfection". It is dedicated to the king but also his first wife, Thua Thien Cao. Gia Long did high in 1815 on Mount Bach "White Mountain", "one of 14 peaks paying homage on the right side at the mausoleum of the king". It consists of two buildings double roof and a length of 22m. The main building at the back, is 14 meters deep, which is twice more than the previous building. At the bottom of the main building in a great niche carved, painted and gilded, and closed brocade curtains are placed mortuary tablets of kings, wearing their rituals posthumous titles . In both parts are placed all the rituals furniture: tables of offerings, some of which richly carved, chairs, stools, desks for reading the act of offering, supports, cots, candlesticks, incense burners . . .
Front of the temple lies a paved quadrangle, with the driveway leading to brown tiles stairs adorned with dragons environment. On both sides of the court, two buildings were used as stores. On the front side, the court is closed by a gate with three bays, forming a two-storey pavilion at very elegant, with carved panels. From outside the door, the view of the surrounding mountains is beautiful.
Below this door are two courtyards overlooking turn the outer road and a large crescent-shaped pond.
After passing left the foundations of the temple of worship, we come to the graves of the sovereign and his wife, raised on six terraces. The high walls of the enclosure and the courtyards at altitudes harmoniously exude a real sense of grandeur. The superior court is called Bai Dinh which can be translated as "the courtyard where we prostrate" (meaning to pay tribute to the deceased).
It takes a little climb to see the cenotaphs. Of equal size, they consist of two blocks of masonry, large stones, and once each covered by a masonry roof also. When behind the tomb, we perceive on a hill two high towers in masonry. They were raised to attract auspicious geomantic influences and divert harmful.
While down on the banks of the pond, is the funeral courtyard with stone statues.
Stele Pavilion is located in the east of the tomb on the blue Mt. The pavilion is imposing, but the gray marble stele is one smaller than you can see in Hue.
There are other graves in this cemetery, mausoleum of the second wife of Gia Long (mother of Minh Mang) and the mother Gia Long. This last building was built in 1846.
*/ THE Khai Dinh Tomb
This is the newest royal tombs, but also the only one to give Chinese architecture. In fact, this tomb is an architectural frenzy that blends Eastern and Western styles. But it is the image of the little king, famous for its unique taste and ostentation. He loved to adorn themselves with a mountain of jewelry, including a huge ring on every finger, and drew his own ceremonial robes: From traditional Vietnamese style, but with European military epaulettes and military boots ...
Khai Dinh reigned from 1916 to 1925 was the penultimate king of the Nguyen dynasty (he was the adoptive father of Bao Dai). Impressed by the west to the point of to build a monument to the glory of concrete and without any landscaped grounds, it did not see the completion of his folly, completed only in 1931, after 11 years of work.
Located 10 km from Hue to 2 km on the right bank of the Perfume River, the tomb of Khai Dinh stands on a hill with panoramic views of the other hills. One of them carries an imposing statue of the goddess Quan Am.
The tomb floor on a hill with several terraces. The first flight of 36 steps made us jump to the first terrace, surrounded by secondary temples.
Another 26 steps and we reach the courtyard. Are the inevitable stone statues of mandarins , but if you astonished at their modest size, you will be told that Okhai Dinh measured only 1.40 m and would not have endured the greatest him statues.
Stele Pavilion is located on the same terrace.
There are only 47 steps to reach the upper terrace where the mausoleum. It is an amazing building with its interior decoration. We immediately notice the walls decoration made of ceramic debris, broken bottles. It represented flowers, trees, animals, all of which is supposed to represent the four seasons. It is said that we brought porcelain from the four corners of the empire and the artists broke on site with their measurement.
The ceiling of the chapel is decorated with a huge 'dragon in the clouds. "The throne is surmounted by a canopy of concrete weighing a tonne. The king is represented by a life-size statue in gilded bronze, cast in France in 1922. Tomb we see is not real. The real is buried 18 meters below this room. The king was afraid vandals