Some features on confucalism of Vietnam

Among religions in Vietnam, Confucianism is the most practiced. Its founder is the sage Confucius (K'ung -tzu in Chinese, Khong Tu in Vietnamese). He was born in China in 550 BC to C and became an educator and a moralistic society. According to foreign documents, his birth, he appeared in the sky 5 stars strange turning into an old man who came to see him, and three dragons surrounding his home. We thought it was a good omen that heralded the arrival of a great man.

Since his childhood, he showed himself very intelligent, eager to study and therefore well aware. Although he came from a poor family, he rose to the position of Mandarin by its own merits. Victim of a court intrigue, he was stripped of his rank and left his town to wander miserably meditating on the injustices of men and institutions. It gradually spread to the cause of senior officials and scholars founded a school of discipline based on codes of decency, morality and fairness. His students totaled 3000 of which 72 were very famous. He died on January 18 of the year of the Dog (41st year under the reign of King Kinh) at the age of 73 years. At his death, thanks to his subjects, his teaching was perpetuated by a book littérataire Book Talks or Mon Him: they are dialogues between the student and the teacher: students will find answers to questions asked in the master form of metaphors. Compared to the good old Socratic Socrates, it may be just a question of method that separates East and West. 

His doctrine deals with the relationship between man and the state and family discipline. More specifically, the role of the father or ancestor is essential, it is the sole holder of wisdom, and we owe him a sometimes blind obedience. Similarly, the hierarchy and the sovereign must be respected. The "good man" (junzi) opposes the "little man" (Xia Mia). A good man is cultivated humanist, moral and acts with patience and honêteté. It respects the rites and laws. Difficult to talk about religion with the transcendent confucialisme which refers to any god, but put a moral philosophy based on respect for family and social hierarchy, the natural goodness of man and his ability to improve. The confucialisme not care about the origins of the world, nor for the last man, but it enacts a moral code based on five virtues: humanity, fairness, urbanity, intelligence and honest. According to Confucius, man is born good nature leads him to do good. But most men prove wrong later. What explains this depravity ? At the negligence of their intellectual faculties, which are influenced by the external environment and atrophy in the routine. We can get by perfecting oneself. For this, there is 4 requirements to follow: be interested in anything that exists, enter the secret things, have clear ideas, maintain the purity of heart. Ultimately, those who do good are always rewarded: "Do not do to others what you do not want us to do to yourself". For Confucius, it is absurd to pray to the gods of heaven: no prayer is not able to influence the divine will.

On the death of Confucius, another doctrine appears, that of his disciple Mancius which entitles men to judge the morality of the father, the ancestor or ruler. Langée appear on this latest Xunzi which grants the right to advise the sovereign mandins and put it back on the right path if it is not up to its tasks or rank.

Religious philosophy more than organized religion, confucialisme (Nho Giao or Khong Giao) coined the Vietnam social system and greatly influenced the daily life such as beliefs of its population. According to Confucius, man can not exist outside of the community. Confucian must serve his king, honoring his parents manage his family. In the first period of Chinese domination (third century BC. J.- C. -968 AD), Chinese culture instroduit in the Red River Delta in its form especially Confucian, and Vietnamese were able to go and conquer China with high degrees (Ly Ly -tion and TLC, second century). The first period of independence (939-1404) did not deny the Chinese culture.

A Temple of Literature (Van- Mieu) was built in Hanoi in 1070, and the triennial literary competitions, created from 1076, reorganized in 1232 and 1374. This religious building is dedicated to the worship of Confucius.

It is in the social field that Confucianism left his pretty strong footprint in the history of Vietnam. For nearly a millennium, from the beginning of the Christian era until after 939 AD, he established a system of effective but rigid rules between father and son, husband and wife, subject and sovereign. That order reigns in the world, it must first be ordered families and states. However, it establishes the very democratic system of literary competitions that allowed anyone to become mandarin its single culture, intelligence and its merits. Nobody was a prisoner of his birth. We do not naisait Mandarin, he had become.

In the political field, Confucianism also left deep traces including among authorities. For Confucius, the people as a whole embodies Heaven, so what the people want, Heaven wants. The leaders have a duty to love what the people love and hate what he hates. Mencicus (372-269 BC), a disciple of Confucius, summed up this idea in a famous saying: "People First, the state comes after the king is negligible"

About its benefits, confucialisme is a good religion corresponding to all that is natural to the universe and human temperament, especially accessible to all. Most often, the Confucian virtue and have the heart and the countries covered by this religion has a social order and easy to govern. While the population enjoys happiness and peace.

However, there are drawbacks: the confucialisme covers many philosophies sometimes chimeric complicating issues. On the other hand, this religion more difficult to observe constraints. In particular, she enjoys a highly accuellante attitude, even soft, reducing in some cases courage in man ...

For decades, the lifestyle of the European made ​​its debut in Vietnam with many new ideas and expériementations. The confucialisme do not have much of devotees and the study of Chinese characters is not common either particularly in South Vietnam. It would be the same for the North in decades. This is a normal thing for all religions know vicissitudes, sometimes the ascention, sometimes decadent and it appears new.

Day Confucius once

It takes place on the 28th day of the 9th month. On this occasion, scholars gather and read their best poems. It is a feast that honors the "master of ethics and morality" in the temples we honor him. In this day under the sign of wisdom, families, clans, and village leaders gather to make important decisions.




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