Phnom Penh

1/ Capital or kingdom of Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh (Khmer: Krong Phnom Penh) is the capital city of Cambodia, located in the southern half of the country, at the confluence of the Tonle Sap and Mekong. One million five hundred thousand Phnom Penh residents living on 290 square kilometers of the territory of the Municipality of Phnom Penh. Administratively, Phnom Penh is a province of Cambodia Cambodia and Keb Chutema is the current governor.

Became the capital of the Kingdom at the time of the French colonization, Phnom Penh was known as the "Pearl of Asia" in the 1920s. Founded in 1434, the city has flourished under the leadership of French bequeathing number building the European and colonial architecture, particularly along the major boulevards. Today, Phnom Penh is the most populous of Cambodia as well as its economic and political center.

The city is built at the intersection of "four rivers": the upstream Mekong River, downstream Mekong, Tonle Sap (a tributary from the big lake) and the Bassac, the first arm to detach the great river.

This crossing gave the city its ancient name of Krong Chaktomuk (Khmer : ក្រុងចតុម្មុខ) meaning "city four faces".

The city has other body of water including Lake Boeung Kak lake Boeung 2 Trabek and Pempeay lake.

Finally, since the time of the French colonization, Phnom Penh is also the central node of the Cambodian road network. the capital is well located at the intersection of all roads which serve the various provinces of the Kingdom and the neighboring states that are Thaïlane, Laos and Vietam.

2/ Climate
Phnom Penh has a tropical climant.
The city has two seasons. The rainy season, from May to October, can see the temperature rise to 47°C and is usually accompanied by high humidity. The dry season, from November to April, has lower temperatures.

The town takes its name from Wat Phnom Daun Penh (known now only as Wat Phnom, or "Hill Temple" វត្តភ្នំ), religious building in 1373 to house five statues of Boudhha on a mound 27 m high. Daun Penh ("Grandmother Penh") was a wealthy widow who had built.

The city became the capital of Cambodia after Ponhea king of the Khmer Empire, Angkor Thom runs away when the city was captured by Siam in 1431. Stupa behind Wat Phnom houses the remains of Ponhea Yat of the royal family. There are also remains of the Buddhist era statues of Angkor.

3/ Sites to visit:

*/ The royal palace
However it was not until 1866 during the reign of Norodom Phnom Penh became the permanent seat of government, and the royal palace was built. This marked the beginning of the transformation of what was essentially a village into a big city, the French colonization enlarging the canal system to control the wetlands, constructing roads and a port. Since then, the city has a number of impressive buildings in art deco architecture, some of which unfortunately in poor condition, and many colonial villas.

In the 1920s and until 1970, Phnom Penh was known as the Pearl of Asia. Throughout the next four decades she continued to expand with the construction of a railway route to Sihanoukville (Kampong Som) and the International Airport. In April 1967, the Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew carried out a state visit and was impressed by the beauty and development of Phnom Penh; he told his host Norodom Sihanouk, "I hope one day my city look like yours" and recommended his Ministers follow its development model.

War and Terror
During the Vietnam War, Cambodia, including Phnom Penh in 1970, was used as a base by the Army Viet Cong, and thousands of refugees across the country invaded the city to escape the fighting between government troops, the Vietcong troops south Vietnam and its allies and the Khmer Rouge. During the five years of civil war the government of Lon Nol, the city was enclosed and besieged and bombarded by the communist troops. The supplies were made ​​possible not only by convoys along the Mekong River from South Vietnam, and Phnom Penh Pochentong.

In 1975 the population reached two million. The city fell under the Khmer Rouge Democratic Kampuchia April 17, the day of the Cambodian New Year, and was evacuated by force; residents had to leave work on rural farms as new citizens, or new people ("procheachun Thmey"), so designated because they are considered relative newcomers to those who already lived in the country.

In one day, the city was emptied of almost all of its 2 million inhabitants, and neglected for 3 years, 8 months and 20 days.
The Tuol Svay Prey School was transformed by forces Polpot in prison and torture center S-21. It is now the Tuol Sleng Museum, which with Choeung Ek, fifteen miles away, is a memorial to those who perished as a result of this scheme.

*/ The Central Post Office in Phnom Penh

The Khmer Rouge were driven out of Phnom Penh by Vietnamese January 7, 1979 and people began to return to the city. 80 % of the population before the war had perished following the executions, torture and deprivation during the Khmer Rouge years. After almost four years of neglect, the infrastructure of the city were severely damaged, and almost worked. The city remained cut off from the Western world for 12 years. 

A period of reconstruction began in 1991, after the Paris agreements helped by the stability of government, attracting foreign investment and aid by countries such as France, Australia, Korea, China and Japan and supra - national organizations including the drinking water supply, roads and other infrastructure.

*/ National Museum

*/ Silver Pagoda in the Palace

4/ Recent development

The city recently knows anarchic development, not respecting any development plan. Many buildings and public buildings from the colonial era such as Breweries cooler and Indochina (BGI), the Principal Commissioner of Police, the former prison T-3 were sold and demolished and replaced by new constructions. The city has lost much of the charm that characterized. In 2012, it has no means of public transport.

Recent years from 2005 to 2009 experienced a period of euphoria and real estate speculation. Many real estate projects have seen the day since that time. Buildings over 30 floors are now built in the city center, upsetting the prospects of the great colonial boulevards.

5/ How to get there

*/ By boat from Vietnam

*/ En route from Vietnam and Thailand

*/ By Plane from Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and other

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